Our body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, fluoride and selenium
- Trace minerals are inorganic nutrients that are used for many biological functions, such as digestion, growth and hormone regulation. Humans need less than 100mg of trace minerals daily; current research has not yet clearly defined how much are needed because they are difficult to measure.
- Copper serves as a part of many enzymes, helps your body make hemoglobin and connective tissues, as well as plays a part in producing energy in your cells. Deficiency or excess intake is rare in the U.S.Sources of copper include nuts, seeds, organ meats, and seafood.
- Fluoride protects your teeth from decay, hardens tooth enamel and strengthens bones. Inadequate fluoride can result in weak tooth enamel but an excess can cause tooth mottling, or stains.Sources of fluoride include tea, fish, and drinking water.
- Iodine works as part of your thyroid hormones to regulate how your body uses energy. It also has an impact on the regulation of body temperature. People who are iodine deficient may experience weight gain or develop goiters. Goiters are enlarged thyroid glands and are frequently still seen in developing countries where the salt has not been iodized. Excess iodine can result in irregular heartbeat.Sources of iodine include saltwater fish, potatoes, cooked navy beans and iodized salt.
- Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin, needed to transport oxygen to every body cell and enzymes. It is needed for healthy brain development and immune function. A deficiency can lead to anemia, fatigue and infections. Excess amount can cause an enlarged liver, skin coloring, diabetes and internal damage.Sources of iron include meats, beans, spinach, seeds and whole wheat foods.
- Manganese helps in bone formation, metabolism of energy from foods, and is a part of many enzymes. It works to help build cartilage and improve immune system response. It is rare to have a deficiency or consume excess from dietary sources.Sources of manganese include whole-grain products, lentils, fruits (pineapple and strawberries) and vegetables (kale).
- Selenium works with Vitamin E as an antioxidant, both protecting cells and supporting immune function. Deficiency and overconsumption is rare in a normal diet.Sources of selenium include seeds, whole-grains, seafood, organ meats and eggs.
- Zinc helps your body utilize food, supports enzymatic reactions and promotes cell reproduction and tissue growth and repair. It is needed for a healthy immune systems and skin integrity, and helps better utilize vitamin A. If there is inadequate amounts in the diet, zinc deficiency can impair growth in children and birth defects during pregnancy. Avoid excess zinc supplementation.Sources of zinc include whole-grain products, meats, eggs, peas, nuts and seeds.
The possible side effects of trace minerals are:
- Because trace mineral supplements begin being absorbed into your body via the digestive system, your digestive system is the first place that side effects begin to occur. As trace minerals start approaching tolerable upper intake levels, such as 40 milligrams per day for zinc or 10 milligrams per day for copper, gastric upset, nausea, vomiting, cramping and diarrhea may occur. Usually, discussing dietary changes with your doctor can eliminate this type of digestive upset.
- Side effects caused by too much manganese supplementation can affect your neurological system. Manganese toxicity may cause psychiatric symptoms, tremors, muscle spasms and trouble walking. Too much zinc may decrease the effectiveness of your immune system, which makes you more susceptible to bacterial and viral infections. Also, high levels of zinc can cause headaches. If iodine levels become too high, thyroid gland and thyroid hormone problems can arise.
- As one trace mineral becomes too high, it can affect the function of other important trace minerals in your body. For example, as iron supplementation causes levels to approach 45 milligrams per day, intestinal absorption of zinc can become impaired. Alternatively, high levels of zinc supplementation can lead to low copper levels and altered iron functionality.
- The use of trace mineral supplements with concurrent medications should be discussed with your doctor. Some medications affect trace mineral amounts in your body, while some trace mineral supplements can affect medication effectiveness. For example, zinc supplements may interfere with the effectiveness of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics, while increased iron storage in your liver may occur when taking iron supplements along with allopurinol, a medicine for gout.
- Iron supplements caused one-third of deaths from poisoning in children from 1983 to 1991. Since then, precautions have been implemented, but that statistic proves how seriously trace minerals can affect the human body. Serious side effects of high copper or iron levels can lead to organ failure and death, while high iodine increases your risk of thyroid papillary cancer. Therefore, trace mineral supplementation should only be prescribed and monitored by your doctor.
- Please speak to your doctor!
Source: Live Strong, http://www.livestrong.com/article/336425-side-effects-of-trace-mineral-supplements/